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S18126, a potent, selective and competitive antagonist at dopamine D4 receptors: an in vitro and in vivo comparison with L 745,870 and raclopride. PDF

Millan MJ, Newman-Tancredi A, Brocco M, Gobert A, Lejeune F, Audinot V, Rivet JM, Schreiber R, Dekeyne A, Spedding M, Nicolas JP, Peglion JL.
J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 1998 Oct;287(1):167-86.

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The novel benzoindane S18126 possessed > 100-fold higher affinity at cloned, human (h) D4 (Ki = 2.4 nM) vs. hD2 (738 nM), hD3 (2840 nM), hD1 (> 3000 nM) and hD5 (> 3000 nM) receptors and about 50 other sites, except sigma1 receptors (1.6 nM). L745,870 similarly showed selectivity for hD4 (2.5 nM) vs. hD2 (905 nM) and hD3 (> 3000 nM) receptors. In contrast, raclopride displayed low affinity at hD4 (> 3000 nM) vs. hD2 (1.1 nM) and hD3 receptors (1.4 nM). Stimulation of [35S]-GTPgammaS binding at hD4 receptors by dopamine (DA) was blocked by S18126 and L745,870 with Kb values of 2.2 and 1.0 nM, respectively, whereas raclopride (> 1000 nM) was inactive. In contrast, raclopride inhibited stimulation of [35S]-GTPgammaS binding at hD2 sites by DA with a Kb of 1.4 nM, whereas S18126 (> 1000 nM) and L745,870 (> 1000 nM) were inactive. As concerns presynaptic dopaminergic receptors, raclopride (0.01-0.05 mg/kg s.c. ) markedly enhanced DA synthesis in mesocortical, mesolimbic and nigrostriatal dopaminergic pathways. In contrast, even high doses (2.5-40.0 mg/kg s.c.) of S18126 and L745,870 were only weakly active. Similarly, raclopride (0.016 mg/kg i.v.) abolished inhibition of the firing rate of ventrotegmental dopaminergic neurons by apomorphine, whereas even high doses (0.5 mg/kg i.v.) of S18126 and L745,870 were only weakly active. As regards postsynaptic dopaminergic receptors, raclopride potently (0.01-0.3 mg/kg s.c.) reduced rotation elicited by quinpirole in rats with unilateral lesions of the substantia nigra, antagonized induction of hypothermia by PD128,907, blocked amphetamine-induced hyperlocomotion and was effective in six further models of potential antipsychotic activity. In contrast, S18126 and L745,870 were only weakly active in these models (5.0-> 40.0 mg/kg s.c.). In six models of extrapyramidal and motor symptoms, such as induction of catalepsy, raclopride was likewise potently active (0.01-2.0 mg/kg s.c.) whereas S18126 and L745,870 were only weakly active (10.0-80.0 mg/kg s.c.). In freely moving rats, raclopride (0.16 mg/kg s.c.) increased levels of DA by + 55% in dialysates of the frontal cortex. However, it also increased levels of DA in the accumbens and striatum by 70% and 75%, respectively. In contrast to raclopride, at a dose of 0.16 mg/kg s.c. , neither S18126 nor L745,870 modified frontal cortex levels of DA. However, at a high dose (40.0 mg/kg s.c.), S18126 increased dialysate levels of DA (+ 85%) and noradrenaline (+ 100%), but not serotonin (+ 10%), in frontal cortex without affecting DA levels in accumbens (+ 10%) and striatum (+ 10%). In conclusion, S18126 and L745,870 behave as potent and selective antagonists of cloned, hD4 vs. other dopaminergic receptor types in vitro. However, their in vivo effects at high doses probably reflect residual antagonist actions at D2 (or D3) receptors. Selective blockade of D4 receptors was thus associated neither with a modification of dopaminergic transmission nor with antipsychotic (antiproductive) or extrapyramidal properties. The functional effects of selective D4 receptor blockade remain to be established.